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StandartinėParašytas: Pen, 2006 02 17 20:50 
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Užsiregistravo: Pir, 2004 05 10 18:45
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jei kam idomu :)

Rally Driving: the Basics.
Driving a rally car is, of course, a lot like driving a normal car: steering wheel for left and right, throttle for faster, brake for slower, clutch for shifting and all that. But the similarity is only skin deep. For example, I do a lot of steering with the throttle and brake (sometimes simultaneously), a lot of braking by making the car slide, and I use my left foot on the brake pedal and only use the clutch once per rally stage. Curious as to how this all works? Read on.
SLIDING FRICTION: The thing that sets rallying apart from most other types of driving is that we are racing under conditions of dynamic (sliding) friction instead of static (gripping) friction. This means that the fast way to drive on a slippery gravel or snowy road is very different than on a sticky race track, or even on the street. For example, if you stand on the brakes on a gravel road or on asphalt, a lot of the car’s weight will transfer to the front wheels and all four wheels may lock up. On asphalt with gripping friction, the best technique is to brake as hard as possible while not locking up the wheels, using the tire within its (static) friction circle and maintaining directional control. But on gravel the static friction circle is very small (there’s not much traction) and threshold braking in a straight line is not very effective. On gravel, it is much more effective to throw the car sideways, use the sidewalls of the tires as one part of the braking force, and feather the brakes for the other part of the braking force – then you’re using the tires in two directions simultaneously, and you’re misaligning the rear wheels from the fronts as you slide so that they get more bite on a fresh surface too. So we don’t just slide around to look cool – sliding is, among other things, an effective traction tool under conditions of dynamic friction.

TURNING: On the street or the racetrack, you choose where you want to apex the corner and you steer smoothly through that point. In rally, we want the car to follow essentially that same path, but we want to do it while sliding with the wheels pointed more or less straight ahead relative to the car. We want to slide during a corner for several reasons: first, as in braking, the static friction circle is very low and we want to use the sidewalls of the tires to take some of the lateral forces of the corner. Second, on a slippery surface a car that is already sliding is easier to control (see below) than a car that is gripping but may break into a slide at any moment. Third, and especially with an AWD car, you want to use the engine’s power through the wheels to “claw” your way in towards the apex of the turn – if you’ve even seen a dog try to take off on a shiny floor or on ice you get the idea. For the scientists: you want the linear accelerative vector to point inside the arc of the car through the corner to compensate for the momentum drawing the car to the outside. Under static friction (on a race track) the lateral grip of the tires does this work, while under dynamic friction we use the clawing of the wheels in a forward direction to do some of this work.
WEIGHT BALANCE: Herein lies the real secret of fast rally driving: the art of shifting weight between the front and rear axles. When you’re sliding a car on a slippery surface, steering inputs are much less effective than they are on asphalt. But transferring the car’s weight from one end of the car to the other has a very large effect on the direction the car will spin (or “yaw”). The technical reason for this is that you are always outside of the static friction circle when you’re sliding, and the coefficient of dynamic friction is constant. So the only way to increase traction on a given tire is to increase the weight on it, and the way to do that is with the throttle and the brake. So if you’re sliding through a corner and you want to tighten the line a little, the thing to do is not steer into the corner, but lift a bit on the throttle and apply a little brake. Weight will transfer forward, the car will turn in, slide more, slow down, and tighten the line. Conversely, if you want to open the line, apply a little throttle and let off on the brake. Weight will transfer to the rear, the car will dig in on the rear, straighten out, and open the line. Steering is still important, of course, but the balance of the car is essential. If you ski you get this feeling naturally – more weight on the balls of your feet causes the skis to turn in quickly and slide out at the tail, and more weight on your heels causes the tails to dig in and the skis to want to go straight ahead. Snowboarders, mountain bikers, and motocross racers know this feeling too. It’s all about balance.

GETTING PLAYFUL: So let’s take a high-speed left hand sweeper (like the section from the bridge to the uphill hairpin on Camp Brule at Baie-des-Chaleurs). You come in fast – maybe 80kmh after the bridge, and turn the wheel to the left a little. A stab on the brakes suddenly shifts the weight to the front wheels and lightens the rear, pitching the car into a left-hand slide. Once you’ve got it sliding, you get off the brakes and straighten the wheel, so you’re in a nice left-hand drift with the wheels clawing in towards the apex of the turn. Hold the throttle steady to keep the balance and ride out the long drift. If you’re getting a little wide (watch those concrete blocks!) lift your right foot a little and press with your left foot on the brake a little to shift weight to the front. Once the line tightens get back off the brake and hold the throttle steady. As you begin to exit the corner, get on the throttle to straighten the car out for the exit and to accelerate. Whoo-hoo!! You did it! You’re probably still going 80kmh. And all the steering you did was a little left twitch before the corner began in order to start the slide.
GETTING FANCY – THE PENDULUM: Some corners are really tight, and you’re not going to get the car to yaw around them enough with the normal technique described above. If you try to turn in really hard you’ll probably understeer off the outside, and even a normal drift may not be tight enough. Don’t reach for the handbrake. Instead, do a “pendulum” turn, or a “Scandinavian Flick.” By turning the car into a slide away from the corner and then snapping it around to slide in the right direction for the corner, you will transition the car more quickly than if you just turned in alone. Here’s how you do it, for a left-hand pendulum: 1. start on the inside of the approach road, or at least with enough room to snap out wide. 2. turn right - away from the corner – and touch the brakes to initiate a right-hand slide. Use this slide to scrub off some speed – as we said above, use it as your braking. 3. turn the wheel left – into the corner – and punch the throttle for a second. This will transfer weight to the rear wheels and cause the car to snap (yaw) hard to the left. 4. straighten the wheel as the car snaps left and balance the throttle to hold your left-hand slide. As above, adjust with throttle and brake as necessary to shift weight. 5. As with a normal corner, get on the throttle as you want to straighten out and accelerate to victory!
Once you get really good, you will use these techniques together: the left hand drift through the sweeper at Camp Brule that I describe above is actually the first swing of the pendulum for the uphill right hairpin immediately afterward. When you start linking corners together like this you’ll be a pro, and I’ll get out of your way.
REAR-WHEEL DRIVE: All of the above applies very well for front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive, and the weight balance issues apply to all drive layouts. But as everyone reading this probably knows, hard acceleration on a rear-wheel drive car usually causes it to throttle steer and “slide out” or turn on a sharper angle, overcoming the effect of weight transfer to the rear under acceleration. On gravel, this is a weakness of RWD cars, and you’ll notice that very few leading rally cars are RWD as a result. In the Good Old Days, of course, most rally cars were RWD, and they required a light touch to get the slides right. The technique is different – it looks great, but it’s not that fast.
HANDBRAKES: The handbrake on the rear wheels is a destabiliser. I don’t like it too much because it pitches a car into a slide without shifting much weight to the front wheels and so in a high-speed drift it can be unpredictable. However, if you’re about to go off the road, or if you have a very tight corner and not enough speed or room to initiate a pendulum, then you can consider pulling the handbrake. If you have a hydraulic handbrake with a long lever, like mine, you can have a little more control. But it’s a blunt tool. Note that AWD cars with viscous centre differentials (i.e. almost all of them) will not allow you to use the handbrake for the rear wheels only – the diff will lock and you’ll be braking all four wheels, but not with much force. You’ve been warned.
LEFT FOOT BRAKING: You’ll note that I mentioned using the left foot on the brake pedal. There are several reasons for this, but the most important is that you shave a fraction of a second off the transition time from throttle to brake, which is very significant when you’re playing the throttle and brake off each other as described above for weight balance. When you’re sliding, the two pedals are more like the rudder of an airplane than they are like throttle and brake (now you know why McGeer is so good!). Of course, if you have a normal gearbox then you may have to take your left foot away to do some shifting, although if you’re very good at your rev-matching you may be able to get away with clutchless downshifts, which will improve your times and your safety margin a lot, as you can keep your left foot balancing the brake. Now you see the advantage of a “dogbox” that has no synchros and needs no clutch for shifting: although the shifts are indeed a little faster, the key is that you can keep your left foot on the brake all the time for more control. Once you dump the clutch on the start line you’re done with it until the finish.
FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE: I’ve left discussion of this until this point because you need to understand left-foot braking and handbrakes to understand an interesting aspect of FWD rally cars and why they can be very fast: with FWD, left-foot braking can work like a handbrake, without the disadvantage of not shifting weight forward. Confused? Think of it this way: using the throttle and brake at the same time on a FWD car is exactly the opposite of doing a brakestand with a RWD car: with FWD you can keep the front wheels spinning (with the engine overpowering the brakes) and slow down or lock up the rears. So as you enter a corner and want to initiate a slide, you can turn the direction you want to go and then apply the brakes while you hold the throttle – the weight will transfer forward (better than with the handbrake, as the front wheels will slow down a little) and your left foot now has control over the speed differential between the front and rear wheels. You can pretty much make a FWD car turn around its nose this way, and this is the reason that no FWD rally car should ever have to worry about understeer. With my ex-factory Lada, you would basically never lift the throttle and just use the brake according to how tight any corner was. It was fantastic. And it’s why many front-wheel drive cars from the Saab 96 to the Mini Cooper to the VW Golf have been great rally cars, and on slippery surfaces far superior to their RWD competition. Now you know.
So to review some of the counter-intuitive things about rally driving under sliding friction: 1. Sliding is very effective for braking and for turning, 2. you steer with the throttle and brake, transferring weight rearward and forward (respectively) as necessary to control the slides, 3. you use your left foot on the brake so that you can play the throttle and brake against each other, like the rudder of an airplane, 4. if you have a FWD car you use the left foot on the brake to control the speed difference between the front and rear wheels, and 4. if you’re getting faster than me, you slow down!

A couple of other little known techniques:
JUMPS: The biggest problem with jumps is that almost every car wants to fly nose-down. If you’re slowing down or braking on the take-off, you will definitely land on your nose. So you want to be accelerating at the launch. For even the biggest flat-out jumps, like the big one at Baie, I stab the brakes and get back on the throttle just before the launch so that the car takes off “nose up” – this is, as they say, the only way to fly. Also (and not many people know this), you want to land with each wheel at a fractionally different moment – if you’ve ever seen a cat land you’ve seen this effect at work. In a car, you want all the shocks to be on a different harmonic rate – if you compress them all at exactly the same moment they will all bounce back at the same moment and you’ll get a bonus second jump after you bottom out. I don’t know why cats land that way, actually.
BUMPS AND DIPS: Mogul skiers get this principle: if turning is all about weight transfer, then the easiest time to turn is when the terrain gives you a natural transfer, as over a crest or bump. Try to plan your transitions for the moment that the car naturally unweights – it will be almost effortless to get around. Conversely, in big dips or troughs, you’ll have a lot more traction, which means that compression areas are excellent places to use heavy brakes and more steering input.
WATER SPLASHES: You walk a tightrope with these. Like jumps, you want to be accelerating through them to keep the nose up. You want to go fast enough to have enough momentum to carry you to the other side. But you don’t want to go so fast that you splash water into the air intake or onto the coils. You can try to waterproof these areas a little, but your best bet is to go into the splash medium-fast, nose up.


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StandartinėParašytas: Pen, 2006 02 17 20:51 
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Užsiregistravo: Tre, 2003 04 30 23:59
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:shock: Aciu! :wink:


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StandartinėParašytas: Pen, 2006 02 17 21:00 
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Užsiregistravo: Pir, 2004 05 10 18:45
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:shock: Aciu! :wink:

jei tik pades 8)


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StandartinėParašytas: Pir, 2006 04 24 23:52 
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Užsiregistravo: Pir, 2004 01 12 23:01
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The Bottom Line This manual provides and explains the workings of many techniques that are used on real roads in any weather condition.

The premier motorsport that deals with these conditions is called Performance Rallying - or just Rally Racing for short. Rally means to race on closed down stretches of challenging public roads, real roads. There is no question that these drivers have the very best vehicle control and racing skills on earth, for no other motorsport is as similar to real world conditions and cars such as these. Do you want to learn about the tricks, the driving techniques used in these motorsports? They work just fine with normal cars, after all. Rally cars are not specified as any type of car, they can be anything.

This manual assumes you know the concepts of under, neutral and over steer, braking before entering a corner and not inside it and the difference between ABS and non ABS brakes. Nothing in this guide is suitable for truck vehicles such as SUV's and should never be attempted due to roll-over risk.

SPEED KILLS - YOU DO NOT NEED TO DRIVE FAST TO HAVE FUN
You know the law. These techniques are not compatible with safe disciplined driving.


Under Steer is the Main Obstacle

A tire that rolls free always has the most possible grip, for it offers no resistance to rolling. As such, a tire that is not spinning will always provide the best grip. This is true for turning as well as accelerating. So gripping through a turn should be the fastest way. There is just one problem - the worse grip gets the more the car will under steer - the inability to turn the car properly. It might seem paradoxical that driving in the way that gives the most grip would be slower around a corner. Despite driving in the way that gives the best grip, all cars will show exaggerated under steer tendencies when overall grip is worse than dry pavement.

The more slippery it gets, the worse the under steer. To turn properly speed must be lowered to compensate. If under steer could be countered, then cornering speeds could be higher. As such, most driving techniques are about overcoming this under steer and relate to changing the direction of movement.

Over steer is not much an issue with the skill levels required to perform these techniques. If you can do these tricks, you will have learned to have good enough car control to counter the over steer.

There are two ways to overcome this under steer. For front wheel drive cars, there is only one proper technique, and it is called left-foot braking. For all wheel drive and rear wheel drive drive trains there is the power slide.


..Not Always the Case

On clear paved roads in general, under steer is not much of an issue in a well tuned car. Attempting to use a power slide will wear out the tires extremely fast as well as wasting perfectly good traction that could have been used for getting around the corner with faster speed. Left-foot braking will still work to some extent, but will hardly be necessary.

Do not to become obsessed with the idea of that one needs to power slide around every turn. During less severe turns gripping works better. During short, but perhaps somewhat severe turns, it is enough to merely provoke some over steer to get through at highest possible speed, without initiating a power slide.

As a rule of thumb: The less grip, the more fancy driving techniques are needed to counter.


Power Sliding / Drifting

No doubt the most popular and spoken of technique in the past years, due to exposure to Japanese cartoon Initial D, Japanese drifting contests (through the import scene) and perhaps even through the exposure to performance rallies in the media. The cartoon Initial D revolves around Japanese street racers who race in the dry twisty paved roads in the mountains at night, where drifting, basically driving somewhat sideways in corners, is the explained to be the fastest way through a corner. This is not true, and then no wonder there are myths regarding this technique.

In a RWD car - Works by applying more power than grip allows to the rear tires. This creates wheel spin, which is a loss of traction (to some extent). Lateral grip is reduced and the rear will have worse lateral grip than the front in a RWD car, causing some over steer. The nose of the car thus is aimed more inward in the turn than normal. Yet the car does not travel in the direction of the nose, but slides sideways.

Depending on how much the tire is forced to rotate differently from the ground, it will gain or lose traction. More wheel spin equals less traction and more over steer. So in order to succeed with a power slide in a rear wheel drive car the driver must balance the throttle. If too much throttle is applied, the rear will slide out further than 45 degrees (or whatever the maximum turning of the front wheel is) from the direction of travel which results in spinning out. Not enough throttle and the rear will regain grip and under steer might cause the car to go off the road.

The driver must counter steer the front of the car in the direction of travel or the rear end will overtake the front without any possibility of recovery, causing a spin out.

In an AWD car - Same principles as the RWD but with many advantages. Not just the rear wheels are slipping, but the front too, and as all four tires have the same diminished grip the rear will not try to overtake the front. This means there is no need to steer the front in the direction of travel. A slipping wheel still has grip, just not as good as when rotating with the same speed as the ground beneath it. When sliding sideways in an AWD car, it will pull twice as hard in the direction of the nose than an RWD. Also it is completely steerable by the front wheels.

As the wheels are constantly spinning faster than the ground, the car may be turned more than 45 degrees from the direction of travel, for the front wheels, while not aligned properly, can still change the angle of the car as long as it isn't sliding backward. Yes, one can even correct when the car is pointing over 90 degrees off the direction of travel! Therefore spinouts pose nearly no risk.

The advantages of all wheel drive become much larger in racing the more slippery it gets. Not only is it more stable and dynamic, It can go through slippery corners at much higher speed than any other drive train and extract itself from corners with mind boggling speeds.


Too Much Traction

Initiating a power slide is the hardest part to succeed with. Rear wheel drive has the easiest chance of succeeding as all the engine power is concentrated on only two wheels, whereas all wheel drive has four wheels that share the engine power. If there is not enough power then it might not be possible to initiate wheel spin by turning and powering on the throttle alone.

The only other alternative is to use advanced driving techniques to provoke the car into wheel spin. These tricks are nearly always necessary on AWD in to break traction as the natural tendency for AWD is under steer. Simply turning and powering will mostly result in ploughing nearly straight.

The process of provoking a slide is called to destabilize the car.


The Technique Library


Left-Foot Braking

Applies To: FWD
Usage: Eliminates under steer, achieving neutral steer or even over steer.
Theory of Operation: The front wheels are unaffected by the braking as the engine keeps them moving, so their traction is good. The rear wheels are progressively braked which induces resistance to rolling. Worse lateral grip on the rear tires are achieved, making the whole car happier to turn.
Instructions: Upon entering a turn, turn in as usual using the steering wheel. Use your left foot to apply the brakes progressively. Depending on engine power, you will probably need to apply more throttle to maintain speed. The higher the braking applied the larger the effect.
Notes: The more slippery the surface and higher the speed, the more the effect. Highly dependant on engine power and tuning. Most cars are tuned for front brake bias for under steer (which is considered safest for passenger cars) makes it harder to use. Wears the brakes faster than normal, the front pair in particular.


Pendulum

Applies To: RWD and AWD.
Usage: Destabilizer, for initiating small and large power slides. Also helps car turn around unusually sharp short corners where no power slide is needed.
Theory of Operation: Body roll and weight transfer from the two wheels on one side to the other is much stronger, therefore lessening/breaking rear wheel traction.
Instructions: Brake earlier than normal before the turn, if speed is too high. If you do not brake earlier and braking is needed, there will be no manoeuvring room for the pendulum. Keeping your speed neutral, while still on the straight before the turn:

1. Quickly start to turn away from the turn
2. Immediately steer back into the actual turn.
3. If power slide is intended, apply sufficient throttle for wheel spin.

Notes: The more slippery the surface and higher the speed, the more the effect. Hard to perform at lower speeds without a tighter steering rack.


Scandinavian Flick

Applies To: All cars which are not equipped with automatic transmissions nor ABS brakes.
Usage: Similar to pendulum, but only serves as destabilizer. Safer and more appropriate to use at extremely slippery conditions.
Theory of Operation: Rear wheels are not given a chance to regain traction after being locked up from the quick sudden rotation of the car.
Instructions: Instead of braking normally in a straight line:

1. Flick the car slightly away from the turn.
2. Immediately release throttle and Apply full braking (wheels must lock) and clutch (or else the engine will stall). The car will now head down the road in a sideways skid pointing away from the turn, decelerating.
3. Put shifter into appropriate gear and turn steering wheel all the way in the direction of the upcoming turn.
4. As the turn arrives, let go of brakes. The car will slingshot into the turn in the same was as if a pendulum was used. Let go of clutch and get back on the throttle.

Notes: If you hesitate when first applying the brakes you may go off the road or the front wheels may lock before the rear, making the car aim itself back in the direction of travel.


RWD Power Slide

Applies To: RWD
Usage: Eliminate risk of fatal under steer on less than ideal roads, resulting in higher cornering speeds.
Theory of Operation: Spinning rear tires have decreased lateral grip.
Instructions: If the engine power is sufficient to break traction simply flick the car into the turn. Immediately apply enough throttle to break traction while at the same time counter steering the car (newbies will notice that if you do not do this at the same time as you apply the throttle you will end up spinning out).

More throttle = More lateral tail slide, less forward propulsion.
Less throttle = Less lateral tail slide, more forward propulsion.

You must find the proper balance. The ideal is as little tail slide as possible, just enough to stop it from regaining grip and under steering.

To stop sliding, back off throttle gently and apply opposite lock (relative to the turn).

Notes: Stronger engine is easier to work with. Limited-slip or locked differential is nearly a must-have for proper operation. It is possible to use the end of a powerslide to pendulum into another, in the opposite direction. Useful when going from one turn that leads directly into the other. Theory of operation is the same as the final moments of the scandinavian flick.


AWD Power Slide

Applies To: AWD
Usage: Eliminate risk of fatal under steer on less than ideal roads, resulting in higher cornering speeds.
Theory of Operation: Spinning tires have decreased lateral grip.
Instructions: Destabilize the car. After having done so, stay on the throttle.

More throttle = More sideways motion, less forward propulsion.
Less throttle = Less sideways motion, more forward propulsion.

Ideally the rotation of the car is perfect so it needs no adjustments from the steering wheel - then it is merely kept straight. If adjustments are needed, simply turn the steering wheel and use the throttle to adjust cornering line.

You must find the proper balance. The ideal is sliding at an as angle possible without regaining traction and under steering.

To stop sliding, counter-steer (relative to the turn). If needed, feather throttle.

Notes: Stronger engine is easier to work with. Limited-slip or locked centre and rear differential is nearly a must-have for proper operation. It is possible to use the end of a powerslide to pendulum into another, in the opposite direction. Useful when going from one turn that leads directly into the other. Theory of operation is the same as the final moments of the scandinavian flick.


Lift-Off Over Steer

Applies To: All drive trains.
Usage: Mid-bend adjustability. Induces over steer.
Theory of Operation: Deceleration from engine braking of vehicle causes the mass/weight to load on the front wheels from the rear. The lighter rear will have less traction than normal, thus less lateral traction.
Instructions: When turning, gradually or fully come off the throttle.
Notes: Does not work as well with automatics nor FWD. Many cars have so much under steer built into them that this does not work. It is highly dependant from car to car. RR and MR cars are particularly sensitive to lift-off over steer. Many an accident has happened from an owner of a high powered RWD car but without proper driving skills, lifting off the throttle before or inside the turn, spinning out.


Parking/Hand Brake Turn

Applies To: FWD, RWD, AWD without limited-slip/locked centre differential, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VII
Usage: Turning the car around very tight hairpins and turns, even on dry pavement. Destabilizer.
Theory of Operation: The hand brake is connected to rear wheels only. Applying the hand brake will cause instant loss of traction in the rear, making the rear slide out.
Instructions: If in a RWD or AWD, press clutch pedal until release of hand brake.

For super tight turn: Turn the steering wheel half a rotation in the turn direction and apply hand brake for as long as you wish to rotate. Ideally the car should nearly stop moving all together by the time you are done rotating. Let go of hand brake slightly ahead of the time you wish to stop rotating. The higher the speed, and the more slippery it is, the harder to stop the rotation.

For destabilizing: Turn the steering wheel half a rotation in the turn direction and apply hand brake for a brief moment - only enough to cause sideway sliding of the rear wheels. Then re-engage clutch and come on the throttle.

Notes: Works very well (and should never be used other than) at low speeds. AWD cars with a centre limited-slip or locked differential will also lock up the front wheels when applying the handbrake. Lancer Evolution VII has a computer controlled hydro-electric clutch that automatically disengages any locking when hand brake is applied.


Careful Clutch-Stab

Applies To: RWD and AWD with manual transmission.
Usage: Low speed destabilizer.
Theory of Operation: Sudden overpowering of wheels causes wheel spin.
Instructions: Press clutch pedal, come off throttle and start turning. Match revs to speed, then let go of clutch quickly while applying (depending on engine power output) a lot of throttle.
Notes: Useful when having braked too late for a scandinavian flick or pendulum, especially on AWD drive trains.


Quick Clutch-Stab

Applies To: RWD and AWD with manual transmission.
Usage: Low speed destabilizer.
Theory of Operation: Revs of engine will quickly rise when clutch is disengaged, and will suddenly overpower the wheels when re-engaged causing wheel spin.
Instructions: While turning, apply throttle and stomp the clutch pedal once quickly.
Notes: Useful when having braked too late for a scandinavian flick or pendulum, especially on AWD drive trains.


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